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Go back to the middle of the clip and enable the Surface studlo to the right of the viewer. Drag the four blue corners so that the shape aligns with the edges of the screen.

Click on the AdjustTrack tab composuting the viewer, then scrub or play the clip to see how well the corners hold. Zoom Window picture-in-picture views helpfully appear Adobe after effects cs5 visual effects and compositing studio techniques free download 8.

Download from WoweBook. Enable Motion Blur for both the layer and the Compo- sition in the Timeline. This track now has everything you need: an entry, exit, and motion blur, and it even matches the skewing caused by the Canon 7D CMOS sensor Figure 8. Figure 8. You can track or stabilize a layer without intermedi- ate nulls or other steps, and even set up a scene track or camera move stabilization as shown earlier in this chapter.

This can be the result of foreground objects passing across the track region or /46212.txt appearance of the region itself changing over time. Mocha is typically used for corner pinning, but you can instead choose to export After Effects Transform Adobe after effects cs5 visual effects and compositing studio techniques free download and adoobe it like regular tracker data.

Sudden slippage is often the result of foreground motion or light shifts changing the appearance of the tracked нажмите для деталей the solution is to mask out the area containing the disturbance. Small, gradual slippage is often the result of shifts in perspective and can be keyframed. The clip shown in Figure 8. Retracking with these additional holdout masks improves the track; all that is required to perfect this track is нужная autodesk autocad mechanical 2016 free чтоли? single keyframe at a point where the unit is tilted about 15 degrees toward camerathis time to the track mask itself, which creates a green keyframe along the main timeline.

Mocha uses these keyframes as extra points of comparison, rather than simply averaging their positions. You also need to know a few new key- board shortcuts, such as X for the hand tool and arrow keys to navigate forward and backward one frame.

For example, to track in a paint clone operation in a single layer: 1. Set up a track with the paint target as the feature center the center of the feature region.

Move the attach point to the area from which you wish to clone. Shape Tracking Mocha-AE version 2 also adds shape tracking via the new mocha shape effect.

There effwcts a couple of features that are compksiting to it:. Shapes tracked in mocha-AE can be pasted into After Effects as mask shapes. Mocha shapes support adding feather to mask vectors if applied with the mocha shape effect. However, it has to be said that shape tracking is not the prime directive, if you will, of mocha-AE, and it can be challenging to set up the track read the manual, as it involves linking shapes and then compoeiting get the splines to conform to the actual contours of the item being tracked.

Your mileage may vary. Adobe after effects cs5 visual effects and compositing studio techniques free download a clone stroke with appropriate settings. This technique can just читать далее easily be applied to any layer that can be placed within visible range for pick whipping.

Continue Loop Sometimes a track point will disappear before the track is completed, either because it is obscured by a foreground object or because it has moved offscreen.

As shown above, mocha-AE generally has no problem with this—any part of the tracked plane that remains in frame is tracked. Reveal the property that needs extending Position in this caseand Alt-click Opt-click on its stopwatch. This expression uses the delta velocity and direction of the last two dodnload.

It creates matching linear motion not a curve moving at a steady rate, so it works well if those logic pro x denoiser missing free two frames are representative of the overall rate and direction of motion. The techniques revealed earlier in the chapter to Track a Scene can also be used to place paint and roto, just as you would any comped and tracked object.

This script is a fantastic roto shortcut for cases where a rigid body in the scene is changing position or perspective.

And CameraTracker, a new 3D tracking plug-in from the Foundry, make the process of incorporating a match-moved camera into an After Effects scene much /28703.txt straightforward Figure 8. The following dis- cussion assumes you are not ffree with this plug-in, although much of the same information xfter.

Track the scene with a 3D tracking application. The generated 3D camera data and any associated nulls or center point can be adobe after effects cs5 visual effects and compositing studio techniques free download as a Maya. Optionally, import the camera data into a 3D animation program and render 3D elements to be composited. Working with Maya, you can also create a 3D animation and camera data from scratch, and export that.

A 2D background plate with the original camera motion can be freely matched with 3D layers. More on this shot and how to set up a shot like this is found in Chapter Adobe after effects cs5 visual effects and compositing studio techniques free download Position and Rotation, Camera may also contain Zoom keyframes.

Unless Sergio Leone has started making spaghetti westerns again, zoom shots are not the norm and any zoom animation should be checked against a camera report or any available anecdotal data and eliminated if bogus it indicates a effevts or even an unstable camera.

Most 3D trackers allow you to specify that a shot was taken with a prime lens no zoom. Work with a Maya Scene A. You may see one or two compositions: two in the case of nonsquare pix- els including a nested square pixel version. The camera may be single-node in which case the camera holds all of the animation data or targeted, in which case the transfor- mation data resides in a parent node to which the camera is attached. Unedited, the scene may become massive and cumbersome.

Any composition Because Downlozd Effects offers no proportional 3D grids in the view- ers, nulls imported with a 3D scene are a huge help when scaling and positioning elements in 3D. Tracking nulls from Boujou helped get the relative scale of the scene; this was important because the depth of the elements had to be to exact scale for the parallax illusion right to work.

If possible, do this in the tracking software or 3D program so страница never have to see the excess in After Effects. Delete them, or if that makes you nervous, at least turn off their visibility and enable them as Shy layers.

The next challenge is that nulls often come in with tiny values in the low single digits, which also means that they have 0, 0, 0 as a center point standard in 3D but not in After Effects, which uses the coordinates at the center of the comp, such as, 0. This is also a way to tackle the problem of the tiny world of single-digit position values. Add a 3D null positioned at 0, 0, 0, then parent all layers of the imported Maya comp to it. Now raise the Scale values of the null.

Once you have the scene at a healthier size, you can Alt-unparent Opt-unparent all of those layers, and the scaled values stick. This effecte will also invert a scene that comes in upside-down as happens with After Effects, since its Y axis is centered in the upper-left corner and is thus itself upside-down. Camera Aperture 0. Full 1.


Adobe after effects cs5 visual effects and compositing studio techniques free download


Enable Frame Blend for the layer and the composition, and After Effects averages the adjacent frames together to create a new image on frames that fall in between the source frames.

Frame Mix mode overlays adjoining frames, essentially blurring them together. The same underlying technology is also used in Furnace plug-ins for Shake, Flame, and Nuke. Confusingly, the icons for these modes are the same as Draft and Best layer quality, respectively Figure 2. Pixel Motion can often appear too blurry, too distorted, or contain too many noticeable frame artifacts, in which case you can move back to Frame Mix, or move up to the Timewarp effect, with greater control of the same technology later in this chapter.

Nested Compositions Figure 2. If you put a composition with a lower frame rate into a master composition, the intention may be to keep the frame rate of the embedded composition. This forces After Effects to use only whole frame increments in the underlying composition, just as if the composition were pre-rendered with that frame rate.

Posterize Time often breaks preceding effects. To get the last visible frame you must often add a keyframe on the penultimate frame. The philosophy is elusively simple: A given point in time has a value, just like any other property, so it can be keyframed, including eases and even loops — it operates like any other animation data.

Pixel Motion is an automated setting described earlier, and Timewarp builds this up by adding a set of effect controls that allow you to tweak the result.

Individual, automated motion vectors describe how each pixel moves from frame to frame. With this accurate analysis it is then possible to generate an image made up of those same pixels, interpolated along those vectors, with different timing. The result is new frames that appear as if in between the original frames. When it works, it has to be seen to be believed. Timewarp with the same Pixel Motion method.

All methods can be used to speed up or slow down footage, but only Time Remapping and Timewarp dynamically animate the timing with keyframes. Time Remapping keyframes can even be transferred directly to Timewarp, but it requires an expression see note because Timewarp uses frames and Time Remapping seconds. Timewarp is worth any extra trouble in several ways:. It can be applied to a composition, not just footage. It includes the option to add motion blur with the Enable Motion Blur toggle.

To apply Timewarp to the footage, enable Time Remapping and extend the length of the layer when slowing footage down—otherwise you will run out of frames. Leave Time Remapping with keyframes at the default positions and Timewarp will override it. This helps eliminate or reduce motion errors where the foreground and background move differently.

You can even further adjust the reference layer and precomp it for example, enhancing contrast or luminance to give Timewarp a cleaner source , and then apply this precomposed layer as a Warp Layer—it then analyzes with the adjustments but applies the result to the untouched source. These tools make use of Local Motion Estimation LME technology, which is thoroughly documented in the Furnace User Guide, if you ever want to fully nerd out on the details.

Here are a few tweaks you can try on this footage, or your own:. Not only does a higher number drastically increase render time, it simply increases or at best shifts artifacts with fast motion. This is because it is analyzing too much detail with not enough areas to average in.

Smoothing relates directly to Vector Detail. The Foundry claims that the defaults, which are balanced, 71 Chapter 2 The Timeline work best for most sequences. You can raise Global Smoothness all vectors , Local Smoothness individual vectors , and Smoothing Iterations in order to combat detail noise, but again, in this case it changes artifacting rather than solving it.

Build From One Image helps quite a bit in a case like this—instead of trying to blend two nonmatching sets of pixels, Timewarp favors one of them. The best fix is to rotoscope to separate these areas from the background.

Error Threshold evaluates each vector before letting it contribute; raise this value and more vectors are eliminated for having too much perceived error. Block Size determines the width and height of the area each vector tracks; as with Smoothing, lower values generate more noise, higher values result in less detail. Weighting lets you control how much a given color channel is factored. If one channel is particularly noisy—usually blue—you can lower its setting.

Filtering applies to the render, not the analysis; it increases the sharpness of the result. The biggest thing you could do overall to improve results with a clip like sk8rboi is to use Roto Brush see Chapter 7 to separate out each moving element—the van, skater, and background.

A demo can be found on the disc. Did you notice back in the Motion Blur section that Timewarp can be used to generate procedural motion blur without retiming footage Figure 2. Timewarp can add motion blur to speed up footage; it can even add motion blur to footage with no speed-up at all, in either case using the same optical flow technology that tracks individual pixels. It looks fabulous. Some computer graphics artists are also natural animators; others never really take to it.

The exercises in this chapter could tell you in an hour or two which camp you fall into, and along the way, cover just about every major Timeline panel animation tool. You must always start with something. Afterward you can remove all traces of reality. If compositing were simply a question of taking pristine, perfect foreground source A and overlaying it onto perfectly matching background plate B, there would be no compositor in the effects process; an editor could accomplish the job before lunchtime.

Often, it is one element, one frame, or one area of a shot that needs special attention. By the clever use of selections, a compositor can save the shot by taking control of it. This chapter focuses on how a layer merges with those behind it.

Chapter 6 goes into depth about these processes; for now, this overview offers a basic working understanding. Figure 3. After Effects 77 Chapter 3 Selections: The Key to Compositing itself can, of course, also create alpha and transparency channels in rendered images Figure 3.

The built-in assumption of unmultiplied edge pixels can, in some cases, make life more difficult should things not go as planned. After Effects assumes also unique from other compositing apps that edge premultiplication is automatically removed before image combination or manipulation is begun.

Internally then, all alphas in After Effects are processed as straight see Chapter 1 for a review of how interpretation is determined on import. Mask A mask in After Effects is a shape made up of points and vectors Figure 3. I: Working Foundations There are also now several automated methods Figure 3. Roto Brush—this much talked-about feature added to After Effects CS5 can automatically generate and track an animated mask. The advantages are that it works well and can be automatically tracked; however, it is far from perfect and the result is its own effect-based selection instead of a standard After Effects mask.

It is capable of automatically generating a mask that can include per-vertex feathering in many but by no means all situations. Mocha shape is also an effect-based selection tool incompatible with the standard After Effects mask. More on this in Chapters 7 and 8. This offers most of the advantages of mocha shape other than per-vertex feathering , and because it is applied as mask data it integrates with all of the many effects and plug-ins that rely on selections in that format.

They are essential to re-create the phenomena of real-world optics. You can, of course, use selections combined with blending modes to get the best of both worlds.

Blending modes— which to ignore, which are essential, and how to use them—are discussed in depth later in this chapter. Some even generate images from scratch that may include an alpha channel Figure 3. Combined Selection Techniques An ordinary effects shot may use more than one, or even all, of the above techniques. Suppose you have greenscreen footage say a stylish Ford GT40 and want to replace the number on the side.

The art is in knowing which approach to apply in a given situation, and for this there is no substitute for knowledge of how they operate. The foreground pixel values are first multiplied by the percentage of transparency, which, if not fully opaque, reduces their value. Expressed as a formula, it looks like What exactly is happening in a simple A over B composite?

In After Effects, it seems nearly as natural as laying one object on top of another does in the real world. In most other compositing applications even A over B is an individualized compositing operation, and that is closer to the truth—a truth that After Effects obscures in order to make the process easier. Not only that, but there is more to what is going on than might be obvious, because of the phenomena of optics.

The four stages of image gathering and viewing—the physical world itself, camera optics, human vision, and the display device and its environment—exhibit phenomena that are interdependent.

With real RGB pixel data of R: , G: , B: in the foreground and R: 80, G: 94, B: 47 in the background, calculating only one edge pixel would look like As a compositor, you are not supposed to re-create actual reality, but instead the way the camera and the eye gathers visual data from the world. This affects something even so fundamental as how the edges of objects should look in order for the eye to accept them as believable. Other effects compositing programs, such as Nuke or Shake, do not take this operation for granted the way that After Effects and Photoshop do.

This is not a disadvantage of After Effects—it actually makes basic compositing simpler and faster— but it can obscure important related details such as edge pixel premultiplication detailed later in this chapter. This is the type of selection generated by the old Magic Wand tool in Photoshop.

You can feather or blur the resulting edge, but the initial selection contains no semitransparent pixels. This type of selection may have an occasional use, but it truly belongs to the world of primitive computers, not complex nature or optics.

An edge made up of pixels that are either fully opaque or invisible cannot describe a curve or angle smoothly, and even a straight line looks unnatural in a natural image if it completely lacks edge thresholding Figure 3. Transparent foreground objects transmit light, and After Effects is designed to mimic the way they behave when layered together. Take two identical layers, with no alpha or transparency information for either layer.

No expense is spared bringing you these real-world simulations. This is how overlapping opacity is calculated in After Effects. After Effects has a persistent concept of the alpha channel as part of every image, and this channel is always expected to be unmultiplied within After Effects, whether it originated that way or not. Any color multiplied into edge pixels is to be removed upon import in the Alpha section of the Interpret Footage dialog , and reintroduced only on output.

Provided those Alpha settings are correct, this works surprisingly well. At some point, however, you may need to better understand how to take control of edge multiplication within After Effects.

Premultiplication Illustrated Premultiplication exists for one reason only: so that rendered images have realistic, anti-aliased edges before they are composited. How Edge Multiplication Works Imagine the background value to be 0,0,0 or solid black; an edge pixel is multiplied by 0 making it pure black and then added back to the source, in proportion to the amount of transparency in the alpha channel pixel.

Removing edge multiplication with the Premultiplied setting subtracts this extra black from those edge pixels. The Video Output section of the Output Module settings for items in the Render Queue includes a menu to specify whether you render with Straight or Premultiplied alpha; by default, it is set to Premultiplied.

After Effects attempts to guess not only the setting but the background color of a premultiplied image; generally this is black or white, but watch out for situations where a 3D artist has become creative and rendered against canary yellow or powder blue. Back in Chapter 1, Figure 1. A misinterpreted alpha either fails to remove the background color from the edge pixels or does the opposite, removing shading that should actually be present.

This does not indicate some bug in After Effects, but rather a mystery you must solve. There are two basic ways it can occur:.

An alpha channel is misinterpreted in Interpret Footage. Edge multiplication can materialize within After Effects, probably unintentionally, when a matte is applied to a layer that has already been comped against black. This is confusing, as it seems as if After Effects has already guessed, when it has not: It is merely using whatever was set the previous time.

I: Working Foundations Ideally you will work on a project whose images are consistent in terms of edge multiplication and background color ; in that case, you can set an Import preference. Solve the Problem Internally The really gnarly fact is that premultiplication errors can be introduced within a composition, typically by applying a matte to footage that is already somehow blended— multiplied—with a background. If you see fringing in your edges, you can try the Remove Color Matting effect Figure 3.

This effect has one setting only, for background color, because all it does is apply the unpremultiply calculation the antidote to premultiplication in the same manner that it would be applied in Interpret Footage.

Remove Color Matting, with Color set to pure white, corrects the problem bottom , but only when applied to a precomp of the image and matte. An even better option in cases where you have an element against black and no alpha channel is to use the Channel Combiner effect, with Max RGB as the From value and Alpha Only as the To value.

Follow this with the Remove Color Matting effect. This one-two punch uses black areas of the image to create transparency and removes the multiplied black from the resulting transparent pixels.

Mask Modes Shape layers are directly related to masks; they are drawn with the same tools. If a layer that can receive a mask is selected, then After Effects draws a mask; otherwise, it creates a new Shape layer.

These are vector shapes that you draw by hand, and they are the fundamental method used to hand-animate a selection. You can draw a mask in either the Composition or Layer viewer. In Layer viewer the source image persists in its default view; there is a Render toggle next to the Masks selection in the View menu to disable all mask selections.

This allows you to examine the selection in situ, but it conceals anything you might have missed. If the layer is rotated in 3D space, the mask shape is also rotated. Shift-drag on a corner to scale the mask proportionally.

Shift-drag an outside corner to snap rotation to degree increments. Shift-drag anywhere else to transform on one axis only. The property disappears. Now enter MM for a humorous reference to Season 3, Episode Bezier Masks By default, the Pen tool creates Bezier shapes; learn the keyboard shortcuts and you can fully edit a mask without ever clicking anywhere except right on the mask. Or, as a point is drawn, it is possible to. Shift-hold and drag to move the vertex. This includes all settings from the Timeline as well as Motion Blur settings just for the mask optionally separate from the Layer.

The Mask and Shape Path submenu contains special options to close an open shape, set First Vertex more on this later in this chapter and toggle RotoBeziers Chapter 7. The same tools can be used to draw either a mask or a Shape layer. Create a star, polygon, or rounded rectangle as a mask and its vertices can be edited as normal Beziers. Shapes offer a different type of control in the Timeline over properties such as number of points and inner and outer roundness.

Shapes display with two optional characteristics: Fill and Stroke. With a shape active, Alt-click Opt-click on Fill and Stroke in the toolbar to cycle through the options also available in the Timeline. Shapes can be instanced and repeated in 2D space; Alt-drag Opt-drag to duplicate as in Illustrator or use a Repeater operation to instance and array a shape. Consider shapes when you need a repeatable pattern of some type, as in Figure 3.

Using the Repeater, you only have to adjust a single shape to edit all instances of it and how it is arrayed. For the time being, there is no option to array shapes in 3D. The sprocket holes in this film were made with a Rounded Corner shape and a Repeater.

I even added an Inner Shadow Layer Style to give a little feeling of depth and dimension. Combine Selections By default, all masks are drawn in Add mode, meaning that the contents of the mask are added to the layer selection and the area outside all of the masks is excluded. The Add mode masks contents to the image as a whole Figure 3. Subtract masks contents from displayed areas of the image Figure 3.

Intersect masks contents to show only areas overlapping with masks higher in the stack Figure 3. Difference masks contents to hide areas overlapping with masks higher in the stack Figure 3. None disables the mask Figure 3. Enable it. I: Working Foundations Figure 3. It will behave as it should if you set another full-frame mask at the default Add mode just double-click the rectangle mask , then add the Subtract mask as the second or later.

To keep multiple masks organized. Chapter 7 demonstrates how effective rotoscoping involves multiple simple masks used in combination instead of one big complex mask. These modes should be applied to the masks that are below overlapping masks in the stack in order to work. It prevents two masks from building up density as in Intersect mode right.

It prevents two masks from building up density as in Add mode right. Just as the name implies, the Alpha Add blending mode directly adds transparent pixels, instead of scaling them proportionally Figure 3. You can cut out a piece of a layer, feather the matte, and apply the inverted feathered matte to the rest of the layer.

Recombine them with Alpha Add applied to the top layer, and the seam disappears. Alpha Add does just what the title implies, adding the alpha values together directly bottom right. Mask movement can be eased temporally, but there are no spatial curves; each mask point travels in a completely linear fashion from one keyframe to the next. An arced motion requires many more keyframes. It works not just for Mask Shape keys but for any keyframed property. This means it can be used, for example, to correct a drifting track.

You can only adjust a mask point on one keyframe at a time, even if you select multiple Mask Path keyframes before adjusting. If you must arc or offset the motion of an entire mask animation, one workaround is to duplicate the masked layer and use it as an alpha track matte for the source layer, then keyframe the track matte like any animated layer. To draw an entirely new shape for an existing, keyframed mask path, use the Target menu along the bottom of the Layer panel to choose the existing mask as a target, and start drawing.

This replaces the existing shape Figure 3. If the target mask has keyframes, After Effects creates a new keyframe wherever the new shape is drawn. This also can be imperative for effects that rely on mask shapes, such as Reshape described in Chapter 7.

Whichever mode you select also carries over to the Adobe Color Picker and all other color controls within After Effects.

Normalized Pixel Values Most digital artists become used to color values in the 8 bpc range of 0 to , but the internal math of compositing is all done with pixel values normalized to 1.

This means that a pure monitor white value of is expressed as 1, and black is 0. Chapter 11 shows how values above 1 and below 0 are also possible; these operations also make much more sense when working with values normalized to 1, which is an optional mode in the After Effects Info panel—and all associated color controls—no matter the bit depth Figure 3. Contextual examples using these blending modes follow in the next section. They also subdue darker pixels such that the blacks are not factored.

Screen mode yields a subtler blend than Add mode in normal video color space, but Add is preferred with linear blending details in Chapter The result is clipped at 1 for 8- and bit pixels. The two blending modes are identical. In Screen mode, fully white pixels stay white, fully black pixels stay black, but a midrange pixel 0. The difference between Add and Screen is more fully illuminated in the discussion of a linearized working space in Chapter Screen mode yields a result similar to Add, but via a slightly different formula.

Multiply or Add has the inverse effect of Screen mode, darkening the midrange values of one image with another.

It emphasizes dark tones in the foreground without replacing the lighter tones in the background, useful for creating texture, shadow, or dark fog, as in Figure 3. Overlay and the Light Modes Overlay uses the Screen or Multiply formula, depending on the background pixel value. Hard Light does the exact same thing but bases the operation on the top layer, so the two have an inverse effect. These modes, along with Linear and Vivid Light, can be most useful for combining a layer that is predominantly color with another layer that is predominantly luminance, or contrast detail, as in Figure 3.

Overlay and the various Light modes do not work properly with values above 1. Reversing layer order and swapping Overlay for Hard Light yields an identical result. Difference Difference inverts a background pixel in proportion to the foreground pixel. When two layers with identical image content become completely black in Difference mode, you know they are perfectly aligned.

Color takes both the hue and saturation from the top layer, using only the luminance or brightness from the underlying background Figure 3. Stencil, Silhouette, and Preserve Transparency Stencil Alpha and Silhouette Alpha are useful to create custom edge mattes a technique detailed in Chapter 6 as well as a light wrap effect, demonstrated in Chapter Commonly overlooked, Stencil and Silhouette blending modes operate only on the alpha channel of the composition.

Stencil makes the brightest pixels opaque, and Silhouette the darkest. Suppose you have a foreground layer that is meant to be opaque only where the underlying layers are opaque, as in Figure 3. In other words, if you create an Adjustment layer with a Levels effect in Add mode, the Levels effect is applied to underlying layers and that result is then added to them. Leave Levels at the default in this scenario and the area defined by the Adjustment layer—usually the entire underlying image—is added to itself.

Track mattes allow you to use the alpha or luminance information of one layer as the transparency of another layer Figure 3. In both cases, you have pixels with an 8-bit value between 0 and , whether derived from a grayscale alpha matte or the grayscale average of three channels of color, a luma matte.

With color, the three channels are simply averaged together to make up a single grayscale alpha. The small icons to the left indicate which is the image and which is the matte. To set a track matte, place the layer that contains the transparency data directly above its target layer in the Timeline and choose one of the four options from the Track Matte pop-up menu:.

Alpha Matte: The alpha channel of the track matte layer is the alpha. Alpha Inverted Matte: Same but the black areas are opaque.

Luma Matte: Uses the average brightness of red, green, and blue as the alpha. Luma Inverted Matte: Same but the black areas are opaque By default, the visibility of the track matte layer is disabled when you activate it from the layer below by choosing one of these four modes. This is generally desirable. Some clever uses of track mattes leave them on.

For example, by matting out the bright areas of the image and turning on the matte, and setting it to Add mode, you could naturally brighten those areas even more. They also help overcome limitations of After Effects. Chapter 7 describes more uses for them. Gotchas Even an advanced user has to pay attention when working in a composition with track mattes. Unlike parented layers, track mattes do not stay connected with their target if moved around; they must occupy the layer directly above in order to work.

After Effects does help manage changes in certain ways. Include the track matte when you duplicate and it also moves up two layers, so layer order is preserved Figure 3. Share a Matte Node-based compositing programs make it easy for a single node to act as a selection for as many others as needed without being duplicated. The way to do this in After Effects is using the Set Matte effect, detailed below, which has the disadvantage of having no visible reference in the Timeline or Flowchart views.

The standard way in After Effects to provide one-to-many operation is to precomp the matte being shared and then duplicate the nested comp layer as needed, but this complicates dynamic adjustments such as animating the matte layer in the master composition.

There is a workaround that allows a matte layer to be anywhere in the Timeline, but it offers its own perils. It also offers a few custom mattehandling options regarding how the matte is scaled and combined. However, nothing you add to the other layer, including Transform keyframes, is passed through; these would need to be added in a precomp.

Chapter 9 focuses on 3D compositing; for now, keep in mind that while you might want to use a 2D layer as a track matte for a 3D layer, or even a 3D layer to matte a 2D layer, rarely will you want to matte a 3D layer with another 3D layer.

Combine a track matte and an image with an alpha channel, and the selection uses an intersection of the two. Then undo or revert. This brings us to render order with track mattes. In most cases, adjustments and effects that you apply to the matte layer are calculated prior to creating the target matte. To see how this can break, however, try applying a track matte to another track matte. Right Tool for the Job The goal of this chapter is to give you a comprehensive look at your options for creating a selection in After Effects and some hints as to where you might ideally use each of them.

In many cases you have more than one viable option to create a given composite, and this is where you must learn to look a little bit into the future. Which can be done with the fewest steps? Which is most lucid and easily understandable to anyone else who might work with your project? Once you. This section demonstrates. Artists may sometimes let a composition become unwieldy, with dozens of layers, rather than bite the bullet and send a set of those layers into a precomp.

Yet precomping is both an effective way to organize the timeline and a key to problem solving and optimization in After Effects. Two options appear the second option grayed out if multiple layers have been selected : to leave attributes effects, transforms, masks, paint, blending modes in place or transfer them into the new composition.

Precomping is the action of selecting a set of layers in a master composition and assigning it to a new subcomp, which becomes a layer in the master comp. Closely related to this is composition nesting, the act of placing one already created composition inside of another. Why Precomp? Precomping prevents a composition from containing too many layers to manage in one timeline, but it also lets you do the following:.

Reuse a set of elements and manage them from one place. Fix render order problems. For example, masks are always applied before effects in a given layer, but a precomp can contain an effect so that the mask in the master comp follows that effect in the render order. Organize a project by grouping elements that are interrelated.

Specify an element or set of layers as completed and even pre-render them, as discussed later in this chapter. Many After Effects artists are already comfortable with the idea of precomping but miss that last point. When sharing with others, however, good organization becomes essential. I know, I know, eat your vegetables, clean your room. Figure 4. At minimum right , you should have Source and Precomps folders, as well as a Reference folder, to keep things tidy.

When you need to return to a project over the course of days or weeks, this level of organization can be a lifesaver.

I: Working Foundations Here are some ideas to help you create your own comp template:. Use guide layers and comments as needed to help artists set up the comp Figure 4. If nothing else, a locked, untouchable Final Output comp prevents losing a render to an incorrectly set work area because you were editing it for RAM previews.

Organize Source folders for all footage, broken down as is most logical for your project. Place each source footage clip into a precomp. Unexpected changes to source footage—where it is replaced for some reason—are easier to handle without causing some sort of train wreck. The basic organization of master comp, source comp, and render comp seems useful on a shot of just about any complexity, but the template can include a lot more than that: custom expressions, camera rigs, color management settings, and recurring effects setups.

Access it via or simply press the Shift key with the Timeline panel forward to enable it. Both scripts are by Lloyd Alvarez. Click on any arrows or items in between the ends and that level is brought forward. The Always Preview This View lets you work entirely toggle in a precomp but switch automatically to the master comp if this is toggled in that comp when previewing.

Lock the master comp and doubleclick a nested comp to open its Timeline panel; as you make adjustments, they show up in the master comp. To locate a comp in the Project panel, you can. Ways to Break the Pipeline Precomping solves problems, but it can also create more problems—or at least inconveniences.

Here are a few ways that render order can go wrong:. Some but not all properties are to be precomped, others must stay in the master comp? The script preCompToLayerDur. Changed your mind?

Do the layers being precomped include blending modes or 3D layers, cameras, or lights? Their behavior changes depending on the Collapse Transformations setting detailed below. Is there motion blur, frame blending, or vector artwork in the subcomp? Switches in the master composition affect their behavior, as do settings on each individual nested layer, and this relationship changes depending on whether Collapse Transformations is toggled.

Layer timing duration, In and Out points, frame rate and dimensions can differ from the master comp. When this is unintentional, mishaps happen: Layers end too soon or are cropped inside the overall frame, or keyframes in the precomp fall between those of the master, wreaking havoc on, for example, tracking data.

Are you duplicating a comp that contains subcomps? The comp itself is new and completely independent, but the nested comps are not see Script at right. No wonder people avoid precomping. This script can reside in a panel ready to create an entire new hierarchy.

Highly recommended. Therefore it is helpful to take precautions:. Make source compositions longer than the shot is ever anticipated to be, so that if it changes, timing is not inadvertently truncated. Enable Collapse Transformations for the nested composition to ignore its boundaries Figure 4. Collapse Transformations In After Effects, when a comp is nested in another comp, effectively becoming a layer, the ordinary behavior is for the nested comp to render completely before the layer is animated, blended, or otherwise adjusted with effects or masks in the master comp.

The Grow Bounds effect overcomes one specific and fairly rare problem in which the embedded layer is too small for an applied effect , but it is also useful in cases where other effects create a comp boundary that leads visual data to appear cropped. However, there are immediate exceptions. Keyframe interpolations, frame blending, and motion blur are all affected by the settings including frame rate and timing of the master comp—they are calculated according to its settings which can become tricky; see the next section.

Enable the toggle and it is almost as if the precomposed layers reside in the master comp—but now any 3D camera or lighting in the subcomp is overridden by the camera and lights in the master comp. It is now what the Adobe developers call a parenthesized comp. Such a nested comp is both collapsed and not: You can apply a blending mode, but 3D data is passed through Figure 4. Will you run into this exact situation? Nested Time Annoyed to find sequences importing at the wrong frame rate? After Effects is not rigid about time, but digital video itself is.

You can freely mix and change frame rates among compositions without changing the timing, as has been shown. The nested comp left is a 3D box made up of solids, each with a Multiply blending mode. In the master comp right a Levels effect with no adjustment is set, allowing an Add mode to be applied, yet the box can still be rotated in 3D—those values are passed through.

The Posterize Time effect will force any layer to the specified frame rate. Preserve Frame Rate maintains the frame rate of the composition wherever it goes—into another composition with a different frame rate or into the render queue with different frame rate settings.

Typically, if an element is scaled down in a precomp and the entire composition is nested into another comp and scaled up, the two operations are treated as one, so that no data loss occurs via quantization. If the data in the subcomp is to appear pixilated, as if it were scaled up from a lower-resolution element, this toggle preserves the chunky pixel look. Any layer can be toggled but the typical way to set it is to create a unique layer. The adjustment layer is itself invisible, but its effects are applied to all layers below it.

It is a fundamentally simple feature with many uses. Adjustment layers allow you to apply effects to an entire composition without precomping it. Move the adjustment layer down the stack and any layers above it are unaffected, because the render order in After Effects goes from the lowest layer upward.

Use Opacity to attenuate any effect; most of them work naturally this way. If you enlarge the composition, you must resize the adjustment layers as well. Alpha channel effects change the alphas of the layers below, not of the adjustment layer itself. But applying Add mode to the adjustment layer bottom causes the adjusted image to be added to the original, giving it a subtle extra pop that can be seen in the brighter highlights in one simple step.

You can use this for. A picture-in-picture layer shows timing reference from the plate, along with a text reminder that does not render, either. None of this is visible in another composition, or in the render. Control the Render Pipeline The render pipeline is the order in which operations happen; by controlling it, you can solve problems and overcome bottlenecks. For the most part render order is plainly displayed in the timeline and follows consistent rules:. Layer properties masks, effects, transforms, paint, and type are calculated in strict top-to-bottom order twirl down the layer to see it.

So to review: In a 2D composition, After Effects starts at the bottom layer and calculates any adjustments to it in the order that properties are shown, top to bottom. Then, it calculates adjustments to the layer above it, composites the two of them together, and moves up the stack in this manner Figure 4. Layer properties render in the order shown when twirled down; there is no direct way to change the order of these categories.

Although effects within a given layer generally calculate prior to transforms except in the case of continuously rasterized vector layers , an adjustment layer above a layer guarantees that its effects are rendered after the transforms of all layers below it. Track mattes and blending modes are applied last, after all other layer properties masks, effects, and transforms have been calculated, and after their own mask, effect, and transform data are applied.

To avoid render errors, precomp them in a nested 2D layer. The Transform effect allows you to transform before other effects are applied in order to avoid precomping solely for this purpose. No such thing actually exists. The final section of the book delves into creative explorations, demonstrating professional effects that are commonly seen in films and games which readers can re-create.

Readers will also find comprehensive coverage of all that’s new and makes this version of Adobe’s effects programa must-have update, including the revolutionary new Roto Brush, all new effects such as the New Refine Matte effect, new support for Color Look-Up Tables, workflows that take advantage of the all-new bit support, inclusion of third-party tools for additional creativity, and much more.

Apple Books Preview. Visual Effects and Compositing Studio Techniques. This is the only book on the market to focus exclusively on the creation of visual effects for After Effects users, and is a one-stop resource for anyone who wants in-depth explanations that demystify the realm of visual effects and how they were created, thanks to veteran author Mark Christiansen’s friendly and accessible style.

A thoroughly packed, informative read, this masterful guide focuses on explaining the essential concepts, features, and techniques that are key to creating seamless movie-quality visual effects. Users who are comfortable with After Effects will find a helpful review of the fundamentals – managing footage, viewing and editing layers, animating type, and more – so they can learn how to work smarter and more efficiently.

Readers of all levels will learn core techniques for effects compositing including color matching, keying, rotoscoping, motion tracking, emulating the camera, and concluding with using expressions in After Effects, written by contributor and expert Dan Ebberts. An incredibly useful appendix on scripting in After Effects is included as well, written by Adobe engineer Jeff Almasol. The final section of the book delves into creative explorations, demonstrating professional effects that are commonly seen in films and games which readers can re-create.


Adobe After Effects CS5 Visual Effects and Compositing STUDIO TECHNIQUES phần 1 – Tài liệu text.


Pages Page size Copyright Cengage Learning. Посмотрим windows 10 s mode google chrome free download класс!Даже Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. The Adobe Certified Expert program is f. This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Adobe after effects cs5 visual effects and compositing studio techniques free download to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may.

No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by /31394.txt means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor Peachpit shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in /41424.txt book or by the computer software and hardware products described in it.

Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks.

Where those designations appear in this book, and Peachpit was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark.

Mark has used After Effects since version 2. He has written four previous editions of this book as well as After Effects 5. Mark is a founder of Pro Video Coalition provideocoalition. He has created video training for Digieffects, lynda. His site provides numerous free scripts, reference material, and links to other scripting resources. He is a frequent contributor to the various After Effects forums and has a special interest in expressions and complex algorithms.

Dan is an electrical engineer by training, adobe after effects cs5 visual effects and compositing studio techniques free download a BSEE degree from the University of California, but has spent most of his career writing software. Some fundamental things about the book, like its basic structure, have not changed, but other aspects have been radically revamped for this one.

That parallels the development of After Effects itself. After Effects is compelling enough on its own to make it worth becoming an expert. Thank you in particular to Adobe for loaning the time and energy of Todd Kopriva to work on this edition. When the last version of this book came out, The Orphanage, the facility where my After Effects chops found a setting in which we could push compositing in this software to the maximum, was still very much alive.

Maintaining that standard has been possible only with the collaboration of others. In the last edition, I brought in the best guy I knew to explain expressions, Dan Ebberts, and a counterpart on the scripting side, Jeff Almasol, to contribute chapters on their respective specialties, and those remain in this edition.

Collaboration is key to this читать полностью. In gathering new material for this edition I had a few collaborators who were willing to shoot material, either with me on a day out thanks Adobe after effects cs5 visual effects and compositing studio techniques free download McPherron or remotely gratitude to Chris Meyer—yes, that Chris Meyer—and to Eric Escobar.

Peschiera, Adobe after effects cs5 visual effects and compositing studio techniques free download Udono, Eric E. Yang, and Kevin Miller. Thanks to both of you for ix taking a здесь of ideas I put out there, from the ridiculous to the even more ridiculous, and coming up with a design that feels fresh and lively without causing any corporate powers-that-be to collapse.

This is the best edition yet of this book thanks to the efforts and commitment of the many good people at Peachpit, all of whose best qualities are embodied in one Karyn Johnson. Without you, the pieces would not have come together in the way they did, the book would not be written the same, and the entire process would have been a whole lot less fun.

Your humor, patience, commitment, and professionalism make this process of publishing a book relevant and vital, and you are truly able to bring out the best in others. Finally, thank you to you, the people who read, teach, and respond to нажмите для продолжения material in this book. I just read it, with an eye to updating it. Everything I wrote then is even more true today. Certainly in many cases this is due to drastically reduced budgets.

Nothing inspires creativity like limited resources. Laptop computers are every bit as powerful по этому сообщению tower workstations from two years ago. Our phones have HD video cameras and our favorite visual effects application comes bundled with a competent roto artist in the box. The victory will go to the xi Foreword artists who generate an emotional reaction by any means necessary.

Two years ago it was fun to think about bringing the sex to your work. Use what you learn in this book crack windows home free download make beautiful things that /45313.txt and excite people. The tools have gotten better. All that sex and violence. I get enough of that at home.

Apart from the sex, of course. Spielberg called and he wants the world to believe, if only for 90 minutes, that dinosaurs are alive and breathing on an island off the coast of Adobe after effects cs5 visual effects and compositing studio techniques free download America. Your job: Make them look real. Movies are not reality. The reason we love them is that they present us with a heightened, idealized version of reality. The couple are really, really charming and impossibly good-looking—in fact, one of them is Meg Ryan.

Before the surgery. Oh, and music is playing. Nothing at all—and we love it. Man, she looked good. She looked good. But mostly, that T-rex felt real because she looked good.

She was wet. It was dark. She had a big old Dean Cundey blue rim light on her coming from nowhere. In truth, you could barely see her. But you sure could hear her. They make things feel right even if they skip over the facts in the process. Move a gun half an inch and it ссылка like a shotgun being cocked. Get hung up on? Instant dial tone. Modern computer displaying something on the screen?

Of course there should be the sound of an IBM dot-matrix printer from They bring the sex. Microsoft outlook 2016 best practices free do cinematographers, makeup artists, wardrobe stylists, composers, set designers, casting directors, and even the practical effects department. And yet somehow, we in the visual effects industry are often forbidden from bringing the sex. Our clients pigeonhole us into the role of the prop maker: Build me a T-rex, and it better look real.

Not just good—impossibly good. Unrealistically blue-rim-light-outanowhere good. Sexy good. Have you ever argued with a client over aspects of an effects shot that were immutable facts? Do you ever get frustrated with clients who try to art-direct reality in this way?

Well, stop it. And you know what else? Was It Good for You? The sad reality is that we, the visual effects industry, pigeonhole ourselves by being overly preoccupied with reality. We have no one to blame but ourselves. Want me to xv Foreword do one at 48 frames? The problem is that the damage is already done. So when you attempt to break our self-imposed mold and bring the sex to your client, you will face an uphill battle. Then all the talk of realism went away, and the shot got oohs and ahs.

Your client reacts to your work emotionally, but they critique technically. When they see your shot, they react with their gut. You may think that those are the worst kind of comments, but they are the best. Bringing the sex is all about cheap tricks. Lights On or Off? There are some visual effects supervisors who pride themselves on being sticklers for detail. This is like being an architect whose specialty is nails.

There will forever be something more you could add, some shortcoming that could be addressed. Anyone can nitpick.

And this is always the sex. Oh yeah: Star Wars. Audiences only care about the sex.


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